一起学ASP.NET Core 2.0学习笔记(二): ef core2.0 及mysql provider 、Fluent API相关配置及迁移 – 沙滩裤

 

 

不得不说微软的技术迭代还是很快的,上了微软的船就得跟着她走下去,前文一起学ASP.NET Core 2.0学习笔记(一): CentOS下 .net core2 sdk nginx、supervisor、mysql环境搭建搭建好了.net core linux的相关环境,今天就来说说ef core相关的配置及迁移:

简介:

Entity Framework(以下简称EF) 是微软以 ADO.NET 为基础所发展出来的对象关系对应 (O/R Mapping) 解决方案,EF Core是Entity framework得下一版本,相比EF原来版本(4-6.1),显得更加轻量级,相比同样出身名门的dapper还是显得有点庞大,不过鱼与熊掌向来不可兼得,想想一堆堆语法糖,方便的linq查询以及lambda表达式,可以很大程度上从T-SQL语法上脱身出来很多,在配置过程中也碰到一些问题,记录下来,以便后期翻阅:

一.poco的创建以及Fluent Api关系配置

1.一对多关系:

项目中最常见的就是一对多关系了,以语言及语言为例

语言(Language)类

 1 public partial class Language : BaseEntity<int>
 2     {
 3         private ICollection<LocaleStringResource> _localeStringResources;
 4 
 5         /// <summary>
 6         /// Gets or sets the name
 7         /// </summary>
 8 
 9         public string Name { get; set; }
10 
11         /// <summary>
12         /// Gets or sets the language culture
13         /// </summary>
14 
15         public string LanguageCulture { get; set; }
16 
17         /// <summary>
18         /// Gets or sets the unique SEO code
19         /// </summary>
20 
21         public string UniqueSeoCode { get; set; }
22 
23         /// <summary>
24         /// Gets or sets the flag image file name
25         /// </summary>
26 
27         public string FlagImageFileName { get; set; }
28 
29         /// <summary>
30         /// Gets or sets a value indicating whether the language supports "Right-to-left"
31         /// </summary>
32 
33         public bool Rtl { get; set; }
34 
35 
36         /// <summary>
37         /// Gets or sets a value indicating whether the language is published
38         /// </summary>
39 
40         public bool Published { get; set; }
41 
42         /// <summary>
43         /// Gets or sets the display order
44         /// </summary>
45 
46         public int DisplayOrder { get; set; }
47 
48         public bool IsDefault { get; set; }
49 
50         /// <summary>
51         /// Gets or sets locale string resources
52         /// </summary>
53         public virtual ICollection<LocaleStringResource> LocaleStringResources
54         {
55             get { return _localeStringResources ?? (_localeStringResources = new HashSet<LocaleStringResource>()); }
56             protected set { _localeStringResources = value; }
57         }

View Code

语言资源(LocaleStringResource):

 1 public partial class LocaleStringResource : BaseEntity<int>
 2     {
 3         /// <summary>
 4         /// Gets or sets the language identifier
 5         /// </summary>
 6         public int LanguageId { get; set; }
 7 
 8         /// <summary>
 9         /// Gets or sets the resource name
10         /// </summary>
11         public string ResourceName { get; set; }
12 
13         /// <summary>
14         /// Gets or sets the resource value
15         /// </summary>
16         public string ResourceValue { get; set; }
17 
18         /// <summary>
19         /// Gets or sets a value indicating whether this resource was installed by a plugin
20         /// </summary>
21         public bool? IsFromPlugin { get; set; }
22 
23         /// <summary>
24         /// Gets or sets a value indicating whether this resource was modified by the user
25         /// </summary>
26         public bool? IsTouched { get; set; }
27 
28         /// <summary>
29         /// Gets or sets the language
30         /// </summary>
31         public virtual Language Language { get; set; }
32 
33     }

View Code

其中语言及资源主外键关系配置如下

 1  public partial class LanguageMapper : IEntityTypeConfiguration<Language>
 2     {
 3         public void Configure(EntityTypeBuilder<Language> builder)
 4         {
 5             builder.ToTable("Language");
 6             builder.HasKey(r => r.Id);
 7             builder.HasIndex(r => r.LanguageCulture);
 8             builder.HasIndex(r => r.Name);
 9             builder.HasIndex(r => r.UniqueSeoCode);
10         }
11     }

View Code

 public partial class LocaleStringResourceMapper : IEntityTypeConfiguration<LocaleStringResource>
    {
        public void Configure(EntityTypeBuilder<LocaleStringResource> builder)
        {
            builder.ToTable("LocaleStringResource");
            builder.HasKey(r => r.Id);
            builder.HasIndex(r => r.LanguageId);
            builder.HasIndex(r => r.ResourceName);
            builder.HasOne(r => r.Language).WithMany(b => b.LocaleStringResources)
                .HasForeignKey(fk => fk.LanguageId);
        }
    }

2、父子关系 :

 1  public class TechCategory:BaseEntity<int>
 2     {
 3         /// <summary>
 4         /// 名称
 5         /// </summary>
 6         public string Name { get; set; }
 7         /// <summary>
 8         /// 分类描述
 9         /// </summary>
10         public string Descript { get; set; }
11         /// <summary>
12         /// meta标题
13         /// </summary>
14         public string MetaTitle { get; set; }
15         /// <summary>
16         /// meta描述
17         /// </summary>
18         public string MetaDescript { get; set; }
19         /// <summary>
20         /// 缩略图
21         /// </summary>
22         public string Thumb { get; set; }
23         /// <summary>
24         /// 图片
25         /// </summary>
26         public string Image { get; set; }
27         /// <summary>
28         /// 排序
29         /// </summary>
30         public int Sort { get; set; }
31         /// <summary>
32         /// 父级分类
33         /// </summary>
34         public int? ParentId { get; set; }
35         
36         /// <summary>
37         /// 父级分类
38         /// </summary>
39 
40         public virtual TechCategory Parent { get; set; }
41         public virtual ICollection<Technology> Technologys { get; set; }
42         /// <summary>
43         /// 子级
44         /// </summary>
45         public virtual ICollection<TechCategory> Childs { get; set; }
46         /// <summary>
47         /// 关键词
48         /// </summary>
49         public string Slug { get; set; }
50         /// <summary>
51         /// 创建时间
52         /// </summary>
53         public long CreatedOn { get; set; }
54     }

View Code

 1  public class TechCategoryMapper : IEntityTypeConfiguration<TechCategory>
 2     {
 3         public void Configure(EntityTypeBuilder<TechCategory> builder)
 4         {
 5             builder.ToTable("TechCategory");
 6             builder.HasKey(r => r.Id);
 7             builder.HasMany(r => r.Childs).WithOne(x => x.Parent)
 8              .HasForeignKey(fk => fk.ParentId);
 9             builder.HasIndex(r => r.Name);
10         }
11     }

View Code

二、数据库上下文:

根据前面创建的相关实体类 以及相关mapper类型,我们可以重现DbContext的OnModelCreating的方法,反射出实现了IEntityTypeConfiguration接口的相关mapper类型创建相关实体-数据表的相关对应关系

 1  public class DefaultContext : DbContext
 2     {
 3         public DefaultContext(DbContextOptions<DefaultContext> opt)
 4             :base(opt)
 5         {
 6             AutoCommitEnabled = true;
 7         }
 8   protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder builder)
 9         {
10             base.OnModelCreating(builder);
11             var mappingInterface = typeof(IEntityTypeConfiguration<>);
12             // Types that do entity mapping
13             var mappingTypes = GetType().GetTypeInfo().Assembly.GetTypes()
14                 .Where(x => x.GetInterfaces().Any(y => y.GetTypeInfo().IsGenericType && y.GetGenericTypeDefinition() == mappingInterface));
15 
16             // Get the generic Entity method of the ModelBuilder type
17             var entityMethod = typeof(ModelBuilder).GetMethods()
18                 .Single(x => x.Name == "Entity" &&
19                         x.IsGenericMethod &&
20                         x.ReturnType.Name == "EntityTypeBuilder`1");
21 
22             foreach (var mappingType in mappingTypes)
23             {
24 
25                 // Get the type of entity to be mapped
26                 var genericTypeArg = mappingType.GetInterfaces().Single().GenericTypeArguments.Single();
27 
28                 // Get the method builder.Entity<TEntity>
29                 var genericEntityMethod = entityMethod.MakeGenericMethod(genericTypeArg);
30 
31                 // Invoke builder.Entity<TEntity> to get a builder for the entity to be mapped
32                 var entityBuilder = genericEntityMethod.Invoke(builder, null);
33 
34                 // Create the mapping type and do the mapping
35                 var mapper = Activator.CreateInstance(mappingType);
36                 mapper.GetType().GetMethod("Configure").Invoke(mapper, new[] { entityBuilder });
37             }
38             foreach (var relationship in builder.Model.GetEntityTypes().SelectMany(e => e.GetForeignKeys()))
39             {
40                 relationship.DeleteBehavior = DeleteBehavior.Restrict;
41             }
42         }
43     }

View Code

三、多数据库支持:

多数据库的支持,并不是意味着同时对多种数据库操作,当然,后面,我们会尝试同时对多种数据库操作,这可能需要多个上下文,暂且不论。分布式数据库。我们的项目可能是在windows上开发的使用的是SqlServer,我们要发布到linux上,SqlServer 2017 据说是支持liunx的,但是还没出… 当然不是说 SqlServer 就不能装在liunx上,但是我们的Liunx服务器可能已经安装了MySql或 Oracle,我们希望使用现有的,又或者是,我们需要切换数据库。那么,我们需要可以随时切换数据库的支持,以上篇的mysql为例:

1.引用相关包,mysql我用的Pomelo.EntityFrameworkCore.MySql,国人开发的mysql for ef core的相关服务对象,ef

 core 2.0中需要指定2.0版本(Install-Package Pomelo.EntityFrameworkCore.MySql -Version 2.0.0-rtm-10059),

2.需改配置文件依据相关配置动态加载数据库提供对象;相关代码及配置如下

nuget引用列表 

1  <ItemGroup>
2     <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore" Version="2.0.0" />
3     <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer" Version="2.0.0" />
4     <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools" Version="2.0.0" />
5     <PackageReference Include="Pomelo.EntityFrameworkCore.MySql" Version="2.0.0-rtm-10058" />
6   </ItemGroup>

View Code

相关配置文件修改

 "ConnectionStrings": {
    "MongoDbConnectionString": "mongodb://tchistory:[email protected]/history",
    "ConnectionString": "Data Source=127.0.0.1;Initial Catalog=farmdata;User ID=root;Password=123456",
    "DataProvider": "MySql"
  },

在startup.cs 的configureServices方法中添加数据库上下文

        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddDbContext<DefaultContext>(option => option.UseFarmDatabase(Configuration));
            services.UseFarmService(Configuration);
            services.AddMvc();

        }

数据库提供对象扩展方法如下:

public static DbContextOptionsBuilder UseFarmDatabase(this DbContextOptionsBuilder optionsBuilder, IConfiguration configuration)
{
string provider = configuration.GetConnectionString(“DataProvider”), connection = configuration.GetConnectionString(“ConnectionString”);
if (provider.Equals(DataBaseServer.SqlServer, StringComparison.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase))
{
return optionsBuilder.UseSqlServer(connection);
}
else if (provider.Equals(DataBaseServer.MySql, StringComparison.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase))
{
return optionsBuilder.UseMySql(connection);
}
else
{
throw Error.Argument(“UseDatabaseServer”, “No databaseProvider”);
}
}

在程序包管理控制台添加相关迁移 命令 add-migration init:  会在当前目录下生成相关迁移目录

执行update-database -Verbose提交更改到数据库,这样数据库迁移及更改就算完成了,其中要注意的地方是ef core 2.0 中有些数据库提供对象暂时是没有完全实现,如用Pomelo.EntityFrameworkCore.MySql -Version 1.1.2 可能会报方法未实现,更新2.0 rtm版本即可。

祝愿你在码农道路上越走越顺畅;



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