Ansible常用模块介绍及使用(二)–技术流ken – 技术流ken

 

Ansible模块

在上一篇博客《Ansible基础认识及安装使用详解(一)–技术流ken》中以及简单的介绍了一下ansible的模块。ansible是基于模块工作的,所以我们必须掌握几个常用的模块以便能够从容应对日常的工作。

相信大家在看完上一篇博客之后应该也已经知道可以使用ansible-doc -s 模块名,可以获取到模块的使用帮助,在本篇博客中就不再赘述。

 

Ansible常用模块介绍

ansible常用模块主要有如下12个:

ping 模块:            尝试连接主机,如果测试成功会返回‘pong’
command模块:          在远程节点执行命令
yum模块:              使用yum软件包管理工具管理软件包
shell模块:            和command模块类似,执行命令,支持变量等符号
cron模块 :            管理定时任务
service模块:          管理程序服务
file模块:             设置文件属性
copy模块:             复制本地文件到远程主机
script模块:           传送本地的一个脚本并在远程主机上执行
setup模块: 获取远程主机的参数信息 user模块: 管理用户账户 group模块: 添加或者删除用户组

 

Ansible常用模块使用详解

下面就针对每个模块的使用进行一一演示

 

(一)command模块

command的模块是在远程主机执行命令。默认使用此模块,所以可以省略

例:获取远程主机的ip信息

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m command -a "ip a"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:a9:90:16 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.220.5.138/24 brd 10.220.5.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fea9:9016/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:65:31:ad brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.220.5.139/24 brd 10.220.5.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe65:31ad/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

 

(二)cron模块

cron模块是管理定时任务

例:在远程节点每隔5分钟往、/tmp/ken.txt输入111

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m cron -a "minute=*/5 job='echo 111>/tmp/ken.txt'  state=present"
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "envs": [], 
    "jobs": [
        "None", 
        "None"
    ]
}
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "envs": [], 
    "jobs": [
        "None", 
        "None"
    ]
}

可以查看是否已经设置成功。可以看到已经安装成功

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -a "crontab -l"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
#Ansible: None
*/5 * * * * echo 111>/tmp/ken.txt

10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
#Ansible: None
*/5 * * * * echo 111>/tmp/ken.txt

移除计划任务

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -a "crontab -r"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>


10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>


[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -a "crontab -l"
10.220.5.139 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
no crontab for rootnon-zero return code

10.220.5.138 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
no crontab for rootnon-zero return code

 

(三)copy模块

copy模块是复制本机文件到远程节点之上

例:复制本机/tmp/ken.sh 到远程节点上的/tmp下

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m copy -a "src=/tmp/ken.sh dest=/tmp"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709", 
    "dest": "/tmp/ken.sh", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 0, 
    "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1542373625.27-167828199145082/source", 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "checksum": "da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709", 
    "dest": "/tmp/ken.sh", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "md5sum": "d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 0, 
    "src": "/root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1542373625.3-279713897725048/source", 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}

查看是否已经真的传送过去了。发现在远程主机的/tmp目录下面已经有个刚刚我们传送过去的文件了

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m shell -a "ls /tmp | grep ken.sh"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
ken.sh

10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
ken.sh

 

(四)yum模块

yum模块是用来管理远程安装包的

例:在远程节点下载httpd服务

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m yum -a "name=httpd state=present"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "msg": "file:///mnt/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] curl#37 - "Couldn't open file /mnt/repodata/repomd.xml"nTrying other mirror.n", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacksnLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfilenResolving Dependenciesn--> Running transaction checkn---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1 will be installedn--> Finished Dependency ResolutionnnDependencies Resolvednn================================================================================n Package      Arch          Version                        Repository      Sizen================================================================================nInstalling:n httpd        x86_64        2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1          updates        2.7 MnnTransaction Summaryn================================================================================nInstall  1 PackagennTotal download size: 2.7 MnInstalled size: 9.4 MnDownloading packages:nRunning transaction checknRunning transaction testnTransaction test succeedednRunning transactionn  Installing : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64                           1/1 n  Verifying  : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64                           1/1 nnInstalled:n  httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1                                          nnComplete!n"
    ]
}
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "msg": "", 
    "rc": 0, 
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacksnLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfilenResolving Dependenciesn--> Running transaction checkn---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1 will be installedn--> Finished Dependency ResolutionnnDependencies Resolvednn================================================================================n Package      Arch          Version                        Repository      Sizen================================================================================nInstalling:n httpd        x86_64        2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1          updates        2.7 MnnTransaction Summaryn================================================================================nInstall  1 PackagennTotal download size: 2.7 MnInstalled size: 9.4 MnDownloading packages:nRunning transaction checknRunning transaction testnTransaction test succeedednRunning transactionn  Installing : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64                           1/1 n  Verifying  : httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64                           1/1 nnInstalled:n  httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1                                          nnComplete!n"
    ]
}

查看是否已经安装成功

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m yum -a "list=httpd"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "results": [
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos.1", 
            "repo": "installed", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "installed"
        }, 
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos.1", 
            "repo": "updates", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "available"
        }, 
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos", 
            "repo": "centos7", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "available"
        }, 
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos", 
            "repo": "ken", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "available"
        }
    ]
}
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "results": [
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos.1", 
            "repo": "installed", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "installed"
        }, 
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.1.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos.1", 
            "repo": "updates", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "available"
        }, 
        {
            "arch": "x86_64", 
            "envra": "0:httpd-2.4.6-80.el7.centos.x86_64", 
            "epoch": "0", 
            "name": "httpd", 
            "release": "80.el7.centos", 
            "repo": "centos7", 
            "version": "2.4.6", 
            "yumstate": "available"
        }
    ]
}

 

(五)service模块

service模块是用来管理服务程序的

例:启动远程节点的httpd服务

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m service -a "name=httpd state=restarted"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "name": "httpd", 
    "state": "started", 
    "status": {
        "ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
        "ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
        "ActiveState": "inactive", 
        "After": "nss-lookup.target systemd-journald.socket network.target tmp.mount system.slice remote-fs.target -.mount basic.target", 
        "AllowIsolate": "no", 
        "AmbientCapabilities": "0", 
        "AssertResult": "no", 
        "AssertTimestampMonotonic": "0", 
        "Before": "shutdown.target", 
        "BlockIOAccounting": "no", 
....

输出信息很长,我就省略了。现在查看是否已经启动成功

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m shell -a "ss -tnl | grep 80"
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
LISTEN     0      128         :::80                      :::*                  

10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
LISTEN     0      128         :::80                      :::*        

 

(六)file模块

file模块是用来设置文件属性的

例:在远程节点的/tmp下创建一个test.txt文件

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m file  -a "state=touch path=/tmp/test.txt"
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "dest": "/tmp/test.txt", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 0, 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true, 
    "dest": "/tmp/test.txt", 
    "gid": 0, 
    "group": "root", 
    "mode": "0644", 
    "owner": "root", 
    "size": 0, 
    "state": "file", 
    "uid": 0
}

查看文件是否已经创建成功

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m shell -a "ls /tmp | grep test.txt"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
test.txt

10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
test.txt

 

(七)shell模块

shell模块和command模块类似即远程执行命令

但是比command更强大

例如:统计远程节点/tmp目录下有多少文件

我们首先使用command看下效果

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -a "ls /tmp | wc -l"
10.220.5.139 | FAILED | rc=2 >>
/tmp:
total 4
drwx------ 2 root root  65 Nov 17 05:25 ansible_aIMVHi
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   0 Nov 17 05:07 ken.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   0 Nov 17 05:00 ken.txt
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov  7 16:04 systemd-private-2e376cd91398450f85a81bc060207ef8-chronyd.service-TxdhUO
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov  7 16:05 systemd-private-2e376cd91398450f85a81bc060207ef8-httpd.service-k8IZOZ
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov 15 15:58 systemd-private-5c9f32d6cff64520b10075e086d943ab-chronyd.service-iAH3c0
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov 15 15:58 systemd-private-5c9f32d6cff64520b10075e086d943ab-httpd.service-dsAqeg
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov 14 15:56 systemd-private-65ded84926e64a90b0a201a805f752ca-chronyd.service-eSj3iR
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov 16 16:00 systemd-private-6706ba5361284cd4a0c91f3c8b68c606-chronyd.service-sLgAei
drwx------ 3 root root  17 Nov 17 05:17 systemd-private-6706ba5361284cd4a0c91f3c8b68c606-httpd.service-u6vla7
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   0 Nov 17 05:22 test.txt
drwx------ 2 root root   6 Nov 15 15:58 vmware-root
-rw------- 1 root root 467 Nov 15 16:02 yum_save_tx.2018-11-15.16-02.KHC9kd.yumtxls: cannot access |: No such file or directory
ls: cannot access wc: No such file or directorynon-zero return code

10.220.5.138 | FAILED | rc=2 >>
/tmp:
total 0
drwx------ 2 root   root   65 Nov 16 21:25 ansible_v4MF1q
drwxr-xr-x 2 root   root   19 Nov  7 09:35 hsperfdata_root
drwxr-xr-x 2 zabbix zabbix 19 Nov  7 08:48 hsperfdata_zabbix
...

可以看到命令执行失败

现在我们再使用shell执行相同的操作看下效果

可以发现这次获取到了我们所需要的信息

[root@ken ~]# ansible all  -m shell -a "ls /tmp | wc -l"
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
13

10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
13

 

(八)ping模块

ping模块可以探测远程主机

不用加任何的参数信息

获取成功就会返回pong

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m ping
10.220.5.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}
10.220.5.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

 

接下来还有四个常用模块,因为我换了自己的电脑,所以IP地址不再是上面的那些。

(九)setup模块

setup模块用来获取节点的参数信息

获取到的信息很详细,大家如果感兴趣可以研究一下

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m setup
192.168.43.176 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
            "192.168.11.5", 
            "192.168.43.176"
        ], 
        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [
            "fe80::20c:29ff:fea5:e9ae", 
            "2408:84f4:83:54f1:20c:29ff:fea5:e9a4", 
            "fe80::20c:29ff:fea5:e9a4"
        ], 
        "ansible_apparmor": {
            "status": "disabled"
        }, 
        "ansible_architecture": "x86_64", 
        "ansible_bios_date": "07/02/2015", 
        "ansible_bios_version": "6.00", 
        "ansible_cmdline": {
            "BOOT_IMAGE": "/vmlinuz-3.10.0-862.el7.x86_64", 
            "biosdevname": "0", 
            "crashkernel": "auto", 
            "net.ifnames": "0", 
            "quiet": true, 
            "rd.lvm.lv": "centos/swap", 
            "rhgb": true, 
            "ro": true, 
            "root": "/dev/mapper/centos-root"
        }, 
        "ansible_date_time": {
            "date": "2018-11-16", 
            "day": "16", 
            "epoch": "1542378922", 
            "hour": "22", 
            "iso8601": "2018-11-16T14:35:22Z", 
            "iso8601_basic": "20181116T223522739565", 
            "iso8601_basic_short": "20181116T223522", 
            "iso8601_micro": "2018-11-16T14:35:22.739656Z", 
            "minute": "35", 
            "month": "11", 
            "second": "22", 
            "time": "22:35:22", 
            "tz": "CST", 
            "tz_offset": "+0800", 
            "weekday": "Friday", 
            "weekday_number": "5", 
            "weeknumber": "46", 
            "year": "2018"
        }, 
...

 

(十)script模块

作用是将本地的一个脚本传送至远程主机上面并运行

无需加多余参数,只需要在-a后面加上本地脚本路径即可

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m script -a /tmp/test.sh
192.168.43.175 | CHANGED => {
    "changed": true, 
    "rc": 0, 
    "stderr": "Shared connection to 192.168.43.175 closed.rn", 
    "stderr_lines": [
        "Shared connection to 192.168.43.175 closed."
    ], 
    "stdout": "serverrn", 
    "stdout_lines": [
        "server"
    ]
}
192.168.43.176 | CHANGED => {
    "changed": true, 
    "rc": 0, 
    "stderr": "Shared connection to 192.168.43.176 closed.rn", 
    "stderr_lines": [
        "Shared connection to 192.168.43.176 closed."
    ], 
    "stdout": "agentrn", 
    "stdout_lines": [
        "agent"
    ]
}

 

(十一)user模块

user模块是请求的是useradd, userdel, usermod三个指令

如下的命令含义是创建一个ken用户,shell类型为/sbin/nologin,uid号为454,系统用户

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m user -a "name=ken shell=/sbin/nologin uid=454 state=present"
192.168.43.176 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false, 
    "msg": "useradd: UID 454 is not uniquen", 
    "name": "ken", 
    "rc": 4
}
192.168.43.175 | CHANGED => {
    "changed": true, 
    "comment": "", 
    "create_home": true, 
    "group": 100, 
    "home": "/home/ken", 
    "name": "ken", 
    "shell": "/sbin/nologin", 
    "state": "present", 
    "system": false, 
    "uid": 454
}

 

从上面的执行结果来看192.168.43.176执行失败了,根据提示可知uid454的用户可能已经存在,让我们来看一下是否真的存在

命令返回结果显示uid454为nginx用户

[root@ken ~]# ansible 192.168.43.176 -a "grep 454 /etc/passwd"
192.168.43.176 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
nginx:x:454:454:Nginx web server:/var/lib/nginx:/sbin/nologin

 

再来看一下192.168.43.175执行成功的

[root@ken ~]# ansible 192.168.43.175 -a "tail -1 /etc/passwd"
192.168.43.175 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
ken:x:454:100::/home/ken:/sbin/nologin

 

(十二)group模块

goup模块请求的是groupadd, groupdel, groupmod 三个指令

如下命令含义是创建一个名为test1的组,gid为1122,在远程主机可用

[root@ken ~]# ansible all -m group -a "name=test1 gid=1122 state=present"
192.168.43.176 | CHANGED => {
    "changed": true, 
    "gid": 1122, 
    "name": "test1", 
    "state": "present", 
    "system": false
}
192.168.43.175 | CHANGED => {
    "changed": true, 
    "gid": 1122, 
    "name": "test1", 
    "state": "present", 
    "system": false
}

 



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