HAProxy+Keepalived+PXC负载均衡和高可用的PXC环境 – taotao滔滔

HAProxy介绍

反向代理服务器,支持双机热备支持虚拟主机,但其配置简单,拥有非常不错的服务器健康检查功能,当其代理的后端服务器出现故障, HAProxy会自动将该服务器摘除,故障恢复后再自动将该服务器加入。引入了frontend,backend;frontend根据任意 HTTP请求头内容做规则匹配,然后把请求定向到相关的backend.

Keepalived介绍
Keepalived是一个基于VRRP协议来实现的WEB 服务高可用方案,可以利用其来避免单点故障。一个WEB服务至少会有2台服务器运行Keepalived,一台为主服务器(MASTER),一台为备份服务器(BACKUP),但是对外表现为一个虚拟IP,主服务器会发送特定的消息给备份服务器,当备份服务器收不到这个消息的时候,即主服务器宕机的时候,备份服务器就会接管虚拟IP,继续提供服务,从而保证了高可用性。

环境情况:

OS:CentOS release 6.6 x86_64系统
MySQL版本     :Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-5.6.22-25.8
pxc三个节点    :192.168.79.3:3306、192.168.79.4:3306、192.168.79.5:3306
HAPproxy节点 :192.168.79.128 、 192.168.79.5
HAproxy版本   :1.5.2
keepalived版本:keepalived-1.2.13-4.el6.x86_64 vip:192.168.79.166

 

一、PXC环境的搭建

配置服务器ssh登录无密码验证
ssh-keygen实现四台主机之间相互免密钥登录,保证四台主机之间能ping通
1)在所有的主机上执行:
# ssh-keygen -t rsa
2)将所有机子上公钥(id_rsa.pub)导到一个主机的/root/.ssh/authorized_keys文件中,然后将authorized_keys分别拷贝到所有主机上
cat /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh 192.168.79.4 cat /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh 192.168.79.5 cat /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
scp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys 192.168.79.4:/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
scp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys 192.168.79.5:/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
测试:ssh xxxxx date

在所有的节点上pxc所需安装软件包
# rpm -ivh perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh perl-IO-Socket-SSL-1.31-2.el6.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh nc-1.84-22.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh socat-1.7.2.4-1.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh mysql-libs-5.1.73-3.el6_5.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh zlib-1.2.3-29.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh zlib-devel-1.2.3-29.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh percona-release-0.1-3.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh perl-Time-HiRes-1.9721-136.el6.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -ivh percona-xtrabackup-2.2.9-5067.el6.x86_64.rpm
ps:安装epel用网络yum源。yum localinstall xx.rpm解决本地包依赖

在所有的节点上mysql用户,用户组,
# groupadd mysql
# useradd mysql -g mysql -s /sbin/nologin -d /opt/mysql

解压Percona-XtraDB-Cluster二进制安装包,安装文件放在/opt/mysql,并对解压后的mysql目录加一个符号连接,mysql,这样读mysql目录操作会更方便
# cd /opt/mysql
# tar -zxvf Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-5.6.22-rel72.0-25.8.978.Linux.x86_64.tar.gz
#cd /usr/local
# ln -s /opt/mysql/Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-5.6.22-rel72.0-25.8.978.Linux.x86_64 mysql
#chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/
# ln -sf /usr/lib64/libssl.so.10 /usr/lib64/libssl.so.6
# ln -sf /usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10 /usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.6

创建安装mysql的目标,并赋予权限
# mkdir -p /data/mysql/mysql_3306/{data,logs,tmp}
chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysql/
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/

加环境变量,解决找不到mysql命令的问题
echo ‘export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin’ >> /etc/profile
source /etc/profile
echo ‘export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin’ >> /etc/bashrc //装mhs写到这里,perl只能调用/root/.bashrc或者/etc/bashrc

my.cnf关键参数配置
###############################
# Percona XtraDB Cluster
default_storage_engine = InnoDB
#innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog = 1
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode = 2
wsrep_cluster_name = pxc_taotao #Cluster 集群的名字
wsrep_cluster_address = gcomm://192.168.79.3,192.168.79.4,192.168.79.5 #Cluster集群中的所有节点IP
wsrep_node_address = 192.168.79.3 #Cluster 集群当前节点的IP
wsrep_provider = /usr/local/mysql/lib/libgalera_smm.so
#wsrep_provider_options=”gcache.size = 1G;debug = yes”
wsrep_provider_options=”gcache.size = 1G;”
#wsrep_sst_method = rsync //很大,上T用这个
wsrep_sst_method = xtrabackup-v2 // 100-200G用
wsrep_sst_auth = sst:taotao
#wsrep_sst_donor = #从那个节点主机名同步数据

###############################333333

scp /etc/my.cnf 192.168.79.4:/etc/my.cnf
scp /etc/my.cnf 192.168.79.5:/etc/my.cnf
注:不同机子需要修改这两个参数
wsrep_node_address 参数为Cluster集群节点的当前机器的IP地址
server-id 的标识

 

在第一个节点上初始化数据库,启动集群第一个节点,配置备份用户
1)在第一个节点的basedir下初始化数据库:
# /usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db –datadir=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/data –basedir=/usr/local/mysql

2)启动集群的第一个节点:
# cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
# /etc/init.d/mysqld bootstrap-pxc
Bootstrapping PXC (Percona XtraDB Cluster)Starting MySQL (Percona XtraDB Cluster)…………….[ OK ]

# ps -ef |grep mysqld
root 8114 1 0 13:11 pts/1 00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –datadir=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/data –pid-file=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/data/node1.localdomain.pid –wsrep-new-cluster
mysql 9326 8114 28 13:11 pts/1 00:00:15 /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld –basedir=/usr/local/mysql –datadir=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/data –plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql/plugin –user=mysql –wsrep-provider=/usr/local/mysql/lib/libgalera_smm.so –wsrep-new-cluster –log-error=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/logs/error.log –pid-file=/data/mysql/mysql_3306/data/node1.localdomain.pid –socket=/tmp/mysql.sock –port=3306 –wsrep_start_position=00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000:-1
root 9435 6397 2 13:12 pts/1 00:00:00 grep mysqld

3)配置备份用户
# mysql
delete from mysql.user where user != ‘root’ or host != ‘localhost’;
truncate mysql.db;
drop database test;
grant all privileges on *.* to ‘sst’@’localhost’ identified by ‘taotao’; //这一个就可以啦,供本地的innobackupex使用的
flush privileges;

其他集群节点启动:
其它节点无需初始化数据库,数据会从第一个节点上拉过来
cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
# /etc/init.d/mysqld start

查看集群状态:
> show global status like ‘wsrep%’;

 

二、Haproxy负载均衡
PXC安装完成后,我们采用HARPOXY分发连接对数据库进行访问
如下在192.168.79.128 和192.168.79.5上haprox的安装配置操作,两个服务器上操作一样
1、安装haproxy(如果安装在pxc mysql节点注意端口号)
#tar -zxvf haproxy-1.5.2.tar.gz
#cd haproxy-1.5.2
#make TARGET=linux2628
#make install
ps:默认安装到/usr/local/sbin/下面,可以用PREFIX指定软件安装路径
也可以直接使用yum安装:yum install –y haproxy

2、在haproxy服务器上安装配置HAproxy
1)/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg配置如下:
#mkdir /etc/haproxy
# cp examples/haproxy.cfg /etc/haproxy/
# cat /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
global
  log 127.0.0.1 local0
  log 127.0.0.1 local1 notice
  maxconn 4096
  #ulimit-n 10240
  #chroot /usr/share/haproxy
  uid 99
  gid 99
  daemon
  #nbproc
  #pidfile /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.pid
  #stats socket /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock level operator
  #debug
  #quiet

defaults
  log global
  mode http
  option tcplog
  option dontlognull
  retries 3
  option redispatch
  maxconn 2000
  timeout connect 50000
  timeout client 50000
  timeout server 50000

frontend stats-front
  bind *:8088
  mode http
  default_backend stats-back

frontend pxc-front
  bind *:3307
  mode tcp
  default_backend pxc-back

frontend pxc-onenode-front
  bind *:3308
  mode tcp
  default_backend pxc-onenode-back

backend stats-back
  mode http
  balance roundrobin
  stats uri /haproxy/stats
  stats auth admin:admin

backend pxc-back
  mode tcp
  balance leastconn
  option httpchk
  server taotao 192.168.79.3:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3
  server candidate 192.168.79.4:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3
  server slave 192.168.79.5:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3

backend pxc-onenode-back
  mode tcp
  balance leastconn
  option httpchk
  server taotao 192.168.79.3:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3
  server candidate 192.168.79.4:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3 backup
  server slave 192.168.79.5:3306 check port 9200 inter 12000 rise 3 fall 3 backup

2)配置haproxy的日志:
安装完HAProxy后,默认情况下,HAProxy为了节省读写IO所消耗的性能,默认情况下没有日志输出,一下是开启日志的过程
# rpm -qa |grep rsyslog
rsyslog-5.8.10-8.el6.x86_64
# rpm -ql rsyslog |grep conf$
# vim /etc/rsyslog.conf
………..
$ModLoad imudp
$UDPServerRun 514 //rsyslog 默认情况下,需要在514端口监听UDP,所以可以把这两行注释掉
………
local0.* /var/log/haproxy.log //和haproxy的配置文件中定义的log level一致

# service rsyslog restart
Shutting down system logger: [ OK ]
Starting system logger: [ OK ]
# service rsyslog status
rsyslogd (pid 11437) is running…

3、在每个PXC 每个mysql节点安装mysql健康状态检查脚本(需要在pxc的每个节点执行)
1)脚本拷贝
# cp /usr/local/mysql/bin/clustercheck /usr/bin/
# cp /usr/local/mysql/xinetd.d/mysqlchk /etc/xinetd.d/

    ps:clustercheck和脚本都是默认值没有修改

2)创建mysql用户,用于mysql健康检查(在任一节点即可):

> grant process on *.* to ‘clustercheckuser’@’localhost’ identified by ‘clustercheckpassword!’;
> flush privileges;
ps:如不使用clustercheck中默认用户名和密码,将需要修改clustercheck脚本,MYSQL_USERNAME和MYSQL_PASSWORD值

3)更改/etc/services添加mysqlchk的服务端口号:
# echo ‘mysqlchk 9200/tcp # mysqlchk’ >> /etc/services

4)安装xinetd服务,通过守护进程来管理mysql健康状态检查脚本
# yum -y install xinetd
# /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
Stopping xinetd: [FAILED]
Starting xinetd: [ OK ]
# chkconfig –level 2345 xinetd on
# chkconfig –list |grep xinetd
xinetd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off

测试检测脚本:
# clustercheck
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain
Connection: close
Content-Length: 40

Percona XtraDB Cluster Node is synced.

# curl -I 192.168.79.5:9200
HTTP/1.1 503 Service Unavailable
Content-Type: text/plain
Connection: close
Content-Length: 57
# cp /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin/
# curl -I 192.168.79.5:9200
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain
Connection: close
Content-Length: 40

ps:要保证状态为200,否则检测不通过,可能是mysql服务不正常,或者环境不对致使haproxy无法使用mysql
haproxy如何侦测 MySQL Server 是否存活,靠着就是 9200 port,透过 Http check 方式,让 HAProxy 知道 PXC 状态

在mysql集群的其他节点执行上面操作,保证各个节点返回状态为200,如下:
# curl -I 192.168.79.4:9200
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain
Connection: close
Content-Length: 40

# curl -I 192.168.79.5:9200
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain
Connection: close
Content-Length: 40

4、HAproxy启动和关闭
在haproxy服务器上启动haproxy服务:
# /usr/local/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
关闭:
#pkill haproxy

# /usr/local/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
# ps -ef |grep haproxy
nobody 5751 1 0 21:18 ? 00:00:00 /usr/local/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
root 5754 2458 0 21:19 pts/0 00:00:00 grep haproxy
]# netstat -nlap |grep haproxy
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:8088 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 5751/haproxy
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:3307 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 5751/haproxy
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:3308 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 5751/haproxy
udp 0 0 0.0.0.0:45891 0.0.0.0:* 5751/haproxy

 

# cp /usr/local/sbin/haproxy /usr/sbin/haproxy
cd /opt/soft/haproxy-1.5.3/examples
[[email protected] examples]# cp haproxy.init /etc/init.d/haproxy
[[email protected] examples]# chmod +x /etc/init.d/haproxy

5、haproxy测试
在mysql pxc创建测试账号:
#grant all privileges on *.* to ‘taotao’@’%’ identified by ‘taotao’;
#for i in `seq 1 1000`; do mysql -h 192.168.79.128 -P3307 -utaotao -ptaotao -e “select @@hostname;”; done
#for i in `seq 1 1000`; do mysql -h 192.168.79.128 -P3308 -utaotao -ptaotao -e “select @@hostname;”; done

注:其实可以只允许haproxy侧的IP访问即可,因用户通过vip访问mysql集群,haproxy根据调度策略使用自己的ip创建与后端mysql服务器的连接。

查看Haproxy状态:
http://192.168.79.128:8088/haproxy/stats
输入用户密码:stats auth admin admin

 

三、用keepalived实现haproxy 的高可用
接着在192.168.79.128 和192.168.79.5节点,安装配置keepalived,防止是HAPROXY单点故障对数据库的访问产生影响,给服务器之间通过KEEPALIVED进行心跳检测,如果其中的某个机器出现问题,其中的一台将会接管,对用户来说整个过程透明
在192.168.79.128和192.168.79.5上安装配置:
# yum install keepalived -y
#yum install MySQL-python -y
# mv /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf.bak
# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf
! Configuration File for keepalived
global_defs {
  router_id haproxy_ha #keepalived组的名称
}
vrrp_script chk_haprocy {
  script “/etc/keepalived/check_haproxy.sh”
  interval 2
  weight 2
}
vrrp_instance VI_HAPROXY {
  state MASTER #备份机是BACKUP
  #nopreempt #非抢占模式
  interface eth0
  virtual_router_id 51 #同一集群中该数值要相同,只能从1-255
  priority 100 //备库可以90
  advert_int 1
  authentication {
  auth_type PASS #Auth 用密码,但密码不要超过8位
  auth_pass 1111
}
track_script {
  chk_haprocy
}
virtual_ipaddress {
  192.168.79.166/24
}
}
这里state不配置MASTER,是期望在MASTER宕机后再恢复时,不主动将MASTER状态抢过来,避免MySQL服务的波动。
由于不存在使用lvs进行负载均衡,不需要配置虚拟服务器virtual server,下同。

#vim /etc/keepalived/check_haproxy.sh
#!/bin/bash
A=`ps -C haproxy –no-header |wc -l`
if [ $A -eq 0 ];then
/usr/local/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg
sleep 3
if [ `ps -C haproxy –no-header |wc -l` -eq 0 ];then
/etc/init.d/keepalived stop
fi
fi
#chmod 755 /etc/keepalived/check_haproxy.sh

启用keepalived

#service keepalived start
# chkconfig –level 2345 keepalived on
# tail -f /var/log/messages //keepalived的日志

ps:先启动,你内心期望成为对外服务的机器,确认VIP绑定到那台机器上, keepalived进入到master状态持有vip
keepalived 三种状态 1)backup 2)master 3)尝试进入master状态,没成功: FAULT

haproxy高可用测试:
check_haproxy.sh脚本可知,测试如果是只关闭haproxy服务,还是会自动重新,如果haproxy服务重启成功,是不会关闭keepalived的,
vip也不会飘到haproxy备机上,所以给测试需要关闭keepalived或关闭服务器才能达到效果。当master的挂掉后,处于backup的keepalived可以自动接管,
当master启动后vip会自动偏移过来。
在其中某台机子上关闭keepalived服务,/etc/init.d/keepalived stop,在经过1s的心跳检测后,会自动切换到另一台机子上,可以通过/var/log/messages进行查看
192.168.79.128:
# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:7c:e0:ce brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.128/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0
inet 192.168.79.166/32 scope global eth0

192.168.79.5:
# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:d2:83:87 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.5/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0

192.168.79.128:
# /etc/init.d/keepalived stop
Stopping keepalived: [ OK ]
[[email protected] ~]# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:7c:e0:ce brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.128/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0
inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7c:e0ce/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

192.168.79.5:
# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:d2:83:87 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.5/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0
inet 192.168.79.166/32 scope global eth0
inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fed2:8387/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

192.168.79.128:
# /etc/init.d/keepalived start
Starting keepalived: [ OK ]
# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:7c:e0:ce brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.128/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0
inet 192.168.79.166/32 scope global eth0
# ip a
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:d2:83:87 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.79.5/24 brd 192.168.79.255 scope global eth0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

本文链接:HAProxy+Keepalived+PXC负载均衡和高可用的PXC环境,转载请注明。



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